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TÜlingu loengusari on foorum, kus saab kuulata keeleteaduslikke ettekandeid väga erinevatest lingvistika teemadest. Alates 2019. sügisest on esinejaid tulnud Tartust ja mujalt, Eestist ja välismaalt. Ettekanded toimuvad teisipäeviti kl 16.00–17.15 ning on kõigile huvilistele avatud. Ettekande lõpus on aega küsimusteks ja aruteluks.

Vihjed võimalike esinejate kohta on lahkelt oodatud. Kui on külalisi Tartusse tulemas või on Tartu kolleegidel soov mõni ettekanne siinsele kuulajaskonnale esitada ja tagasisidet saada, siis palume kontakti võtta korraldajatega ( Ühtlasi on võimalik liituda TÜlingu infolistiga samale aadressile kirjutades.

NB! Elame ettearvamatutel aegadel! Sel semestril korraldame TÜlingu ettekandeid veebis ning kaasame teadlasi erinevatest maailma nurkadest. Värske info saamiseks jälgi meie veebilehte ja Facebooki lehte. Ettekannetega liitumiseks kliki Zoomi lingile ja kasuta sisenemisel koodi 990981.

Teisipäeviti kl 16.00–17.15

2021/22 sügissemestri kava

Repetition in language - from discourse patterns to grammatical constructions

There are various patterns in the languages of the world which contain a repetition of linguistic material – from English well, well to Latin cucurrit ‘has run’ (vs currit ‘runs’). They can be distinguished by formal aspects (for example, what is repeated, how tightly are the repeated items connected) as well as their functions, which may be pragmatic (for example, used for confirming, correcting, or insisting on a statement), semantic (for example, expressing a degree or quantity), or grammatical (such as the expression of tense or number). While there is extensive research on repetition of material within the boundaries of a word (reduplication in the narrow sense, as in Latin cucurrit), the systematic investigation of the iteration of words and phrases started more recently. A third type of repetitive constructions, often neglected, its cognate constructions, where the same root is repeated in different words. The existence of corpora and corpus-linguistic methods has opened new possibilities for the study of all types of repetitive patterns and constructions.

In my talk I will first give an overview of the phenomenon and aspects of its investigation, and then discuss selected formal and functional aspects in detail on the basis of two case studies: iteration in Latgalian fairytales (guoja, guoja ‘walked and walked’), and cognate constructions in Latvian (runā vienā runāšanā, literally ‘talks in one talking’ = ‘talks without interruption’; runāt runā ‘talk.INF talk.PRS.3’ = ‘they talk indeed’). A common question in these studies is: when does a construction become grammatical, and what distinguishes semantic or grammatical uses of repetition from pragmatic uses?

Stance and engagement in academic discourse: The Baltic perspective

The expression of author stance and the ways to engage with the reader have become one of the key aspects of academic discourse investigations over the past several decades. Numerous cross-linguistic and cross-disciplinary empirical studies have revealed that stance and engagement patterns are reflective of different disciplinary and cultural traditions of academic text construction. Personal pronouns, evaluative lexis, linguistic devices mitigating or strengthening propositions, discourse structuring elements, rhetorical questions and various other elements of stance and engagement have been reported to contribute to the creation of distinct academic identity on both individual and national or disciplinary levels.

This talk will focus on stance and engagement features characteristic to the academic discourse of the Baltic states and on what they can tell us about academic identity of this small geographic region. It is based on the project “Academic Writing in the Baltic States: Rhetorical structures through culture(s) and languages”, currently in progress.

Eesti viipekeel ja selle kasutajad

Viimase mõnekümne aasta jooksul, mil eesti viipekeel on uurijate huviorbiidis olnud, on viipekeele staatus ühiskonnas oluliselt muutunud. Keel, mille kasutamist varem tauniti isegi hariduses, on täna riiklikult tunnustatud ja igapäevaselt pildil. 

Loeng teeb põgusa sissevaate sellesse väiksesse kogukonda, kus eesti viipekeelt kasutatakse, ja uurimustesse, mis ühest või teisest aspektist eesti viipekeelt käsitlevad: kuidas tekivad uued viiped, missugune on eesti viipekeele grammatiline ülesehitus, kuidas keel ajas muutub. Kõrvutame eesti viipekeelt teiste viipekeeltega ja püüame leida tema haru viipekeelte keelepuus. Vaatleme ka seda, missugune mõju eesti viipekeelele on olnud ümbritseval eestikeelsel keeleruumil ja mis ootab eesti viipekeelt ees tulevikus.

Deep clausal embeddings in Finno-Ugric as a typological and theoretical challenge

Finno-Ugric languages form subordinate clauses in various ways – with finite and non-finite verb forms, with and without conjunctions, etc. All these are interesting and have been extensively studied, although the focus of researchers has always been on first-order subordinate clauses, and not on deeper embeddings (such as second- or third-order embedded clauses). Under ‘deeply embedded clause’ I mean a clause (finite, infinitival, converb or participial) which is embedded in a clause, which itself is a subordinate clause, etc – e.g. in the Finnish sentence [Lakia ehdotetaan muutettavaksi niin, [että valtioneuvosto voisi asettaa rajoituksia sellaisten yritysten koolle, [joille kehitysalueen investointitukea voidaan myöntää]]] (VISK § 1168).
Such sentences with several levels of embedding recur in debates for or against recursion as a “fundamental property of human language” which explains the excessive focus of researchers on their formal properties, such as the embedding depth, the position of the embedded clause in the superordinate clause (center-embedding vs. tail-embedding), etc. On the other hand, there are hardly any studies devoted to the grammatical semantics of such deep clausal embeddings in relation to the other clauses in the sentence; a remarkable exception is the recent work of Alexander Letuchiy (2018, 2020), which serves as an inspiration for the present talk.
What are the semantic properties (tense, aspect, modality) of such deeply embedded clauses? Are these properties determined by the immediately superordinate clause, or also by upper clauses in the embedding cycle, or can they be independently assigned – relative to the moment of speech and the reality of certain states of affairs at this moment? And finally – what kind of discoveries of a study on TAM in deep clausal embedding would pose a challenge to the recursion claim.

On the semantics and pragmatics of negation and their effects on the structure of negatives in a cross-linguistic perspective

Cross-linguistic typological work on negation has paid most attention to standard negation, i.e. the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. Other aspects of negation that have received at least some attention in large-scale typological studies include the negation of imperatives, the negation of stative (nonverbal, existential, etc.) predications, the negation of indefinite pronouns, abessives, the effects of negation on the marking of NPs, and negative replies to questions – for a recent overview of typological work on negation, see Miestamo 2017. Currently, typological work is underway on various aspects of the typology of negation: e.g., Veselinova’s work on negative lexicalizations and the relationship between negation and TAM, Miestamo & Koptjevskaja Tamm’s work on antonyms, Van Olmen’s work on negative imperatives, and Mauri & Sansò's work on anticircumstantial clauses as well as Miestamo, Shagal & Silvennoinen’s work on negation in dependent clauses.

In typological work, explanations for cross-linguistic generalizations are most often sought in the functional properties of the phenomenon under study. Such explanations include, for example, economy-based explanations of cross-linguistic markedness patterns, e.g. explaining the markedness of the plural by its lower text frequency as compared to the singular. In this talk, instead of first presenting typological generalizations on the structure of negatives and then discussing their possible functional explanations, I will turn the perspective around, start from the functional properties (semantics, pragmatics, processing etc) of negation and see what kinds of negative structures they may give rise to. I will discuss ways in which negation differs from affirmation in its semantics and pragmatics, paying attention for example to the discourse context of negation, and how such differences can be seen as motivating various cross-linguistically recurring structural patterns in negatives. This shift of perspective will help us to see connections between different typological properties of negatives that might otherwise go unnoticed.



van der Auwera, J. & L. Lejeune. 2005. The prohibitive. In M. Haspelmath, M. Dryer, D. Gil & B. Comrie (eds.), The world atlas of language structures, 290–293. Oxford: OUP.
Croft, W. 1991. The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics 27(1). 1–27.
Dahl, Ö. 1979. Typology of sentence negation. Linguistics 17. 79–106.
Dryer, M. S. 2013a. Negative morphemes. In M. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (eds.), World atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Dryer, M. 2013b. Order of negative morpheme and verb. In M. Dryer and M. Haspelmath (eds.), World atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Dryer, M. 2013c. Position of negative morpheme with respect to subject, object, and verb. In M. Dryer and M. Haspelmath (eds.), World atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Eriksen, P.K. 2011. ‘To not be’ or not ‘to not be’: The typology of negation of non-verbal predicates. Studies in Language 35 (2): 275-310.
Haspelmath, M. 1997. Indefinite pronouns. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Haspelmath, M. 2013. Negative indefinite pronouns and predicate negation. In M. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (eds.), World atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology,
Holmberg, A. 2015. The Syntax of Yes and No. Oxford: OUP.
Miestamo, M. 2005. Standard negation: The negation of declarative verbal main clauses in a typological perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Miestamo, M. 2014. Partitives and negation: A cross-linguistic survey. In S. Luraghi & T. Huumo, eds., Partitive Cases and Related Categories, 63-86. Mouton de Gruyter.
Miestamo, Matti. 2016. Questionnaire for describing the negation system of a language. Available online via
Miestamo, M. 2017. Negation. In A. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon, eds., The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology, 405-439. Cambridge: CUP.
Payne, J. 1985. Negation. In T. Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, volume I, Clause structure, 197–242. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stolz, T., C. Stroh & A. Urdze. 2007. WITH(OUT): On the markedness relations between comitatives/instrumentals and abessives. Word 58(2). 63-122.
Van Alsenoy, L. 2014. A New Typology of Indefinite Pronouns, with a Focus on Negative Indefinites. U Antwerp dissertation.
Veselinova, L. 2013. Negative existentials: A cross-linguistic study. Rivista di linguistica 25 (1): 107-145.

Sõnaliigiline varieerumine kaassõna ja adverbi piirialal: kas elliptilisus või tähenduslik diferentseeritus?

Kui kaassõnad moodustavad suhteliselt väikse ja kindlapiirilise sõnaklassi (neid saab loendada sadades), siis määrsõnade klass on nii eesti keeles kui ka teistes keeltes suur ja heterogeenne (loendatakse tuhandetes). Kahe klassi ühisossa kuuluvad sõnad, mis võivad samas tähenduses olla kord kaassõnad (üle põllu), kord määrsõnad (sõitis üle). Tavalisem on selline varieeruvus  kohatähenduslike sõnade puhul, kuid mõningal määral ka muudes tähendustes. Koos verbiga võib olla moodustunud ka uue tähendusega tervik, ainukordne ühendverb (üle minema, läbi kukkuma). Kuid kaassõna ja ühendverbi vahel eksisteerib nende sõnade puhul lisaks veel mitmesuguseid kasutusi, kus komplemendiks sobiv sõna on kas juurde mõeldav (kaassõnafraas on elliptiline), grammatiliste käänete asemel kohakäändes (august läbi) või asendab komplementi lokatiivne proadverb (sealt läbi). Süntaktiliselt eristab kaassõnalist ja adverbilist esinemist kaassõna lahutamatus komplemendist, samas kui adverb ja nimisõna ei pea paiknema kõrvuti. Kaassõnadega lähendab adverbilisi kasutusi seotus pigem komplemendilaadse nimisõnaga kui verbiga. Sellise sõnaliigilise varieeruvuse taga on nähtud eelkõige pragmaatilisi ja infostruktuurilisi tegureid, kuid ka verbi semantikast tulenevaid eristusi. Oma ettekandes arutlen kaas- ja määrsõna vahelise kontiinumi näidete üle. Uurin, millised semantilised tegurid võiksid mõjutada sõna kasutamist kord kaassõna, kord adverbina ning kas ja kuidas mõjutab sagedus sõnade esinemist ühes või teises koosluses.

Spoken English in time and across time: Constructions, context, corpora

Spoken dialogue is the most common use of language, but it is also incredibly complex and dynamic. It puts on full display the intricate ways in which speakers coordinate their contributions to make sense of the world and negotiate social relations with each other. A fruitful method for studying spoken dialogue is to consult language corpora based on spoken, conversational data. However, the shortage of such corpora has long been an obstacle. This talk brings together the main findings of my recent work on spoken English both from a synchronic and a diachronic perspective. It provides a novel and empirically grounded account of the dynamic negotiation of meaning in spoken dialogue including the constructional properties and socio-cognitive processes that play a role. It also reports on the compilation of a new corpus of spoken English, the London–Lund Corpus 2, designed according to the same principles as the first London–Lund Corpus with data from the 1950s to 1980s. In this way, the corpus allows not only for synchronic investigations of contemporary speech but also for principled diachronic research of spoken language across time.

Läänemeresoome keelte struktuurijoonte püsivus ja muutuvus

Ettekandes tutvustan oma järeldoktorantuuri projekti, mille jooksul on lähema vaatluse all  läänemeresoome keelte struktuurijoone püsivus vs. muutuvus. Tutvustan mõne konkreetse näite varal, mida olen seni teinud ja mida on veel plaanis teha. Et projekt on osa laiemast tervikust, suuremahulise uurali keelte andmebaasi UraTyp arendamisest, esitlen ettekandes ka andmebaasi ning selle põhjalt tehtud analüüside esimesi tulemusi.

The status of thematic roles in language and cognition: evidence from instruments

Thematic roles such as Agent and Patient are ubiquitous in theories of the syntax/semantics interface (where in "Joel cut the bread," Joel is characterized as an Agent and the bread as a Patient). Despite this ubiquity, thematic roles have for decades been criticized as lacking theoretical utility and psychological reality. In this talk, I focus on the Instrument role (e.g., the knife in "Joel cut the bread with a knife"), asking whether such a role has broad explanatory value in linguistics and cognitive science. I present an analysis of the English instrumental markers "with" and "use", arguing that Agent but not Instrument is needed as a semantic primitive to account for these words’ meanings. It would be hasty, however, to abandon instrumentality as a category, as elicited video descriptions and sentence acceptability judgments demonstrate a stable Instrumental prototype across English, Dutch, and German. In addition, data from child homesigners (deaf children who have been taught neither a spoken nor a sign language) suggest ways of linguistically encoding the role of an Instrument that are shared across cultures. Taken together, these results suggest that Instrument is a prominent category in cognition but that this category is not directly reflected in English word meaning.

Low transitivity predications in Finnish: comparing Free nominals and copula clauses as grammatical and international resources

In their 1980 paper, Hopper & Thompson introduced a scalar notion of transitivity. At the low end of the transitivity scale, there are one-participant predications which are atelic in their aspect and do not describe actions (Hopper & Thompson 1980: 252). Thompson and Hopper (2001) point out that conversation is very low in transitivity: In their American English conversational data, one-participant clauses were abundant (73% of clauses). A typical example of a low transitivity (LT) predication is a copula clause. In the data Thompson and Hopper used, 37% of one-participant clauses were copula clauses. Comparing this to Finnish conversational data, LT predications dominate, while only 22% of clauses have two participants (are transitive).

The Finnish verb olla ‘to be’ is used in a number of LT clause types, including copula clauses and existential and habitive clauses. Predications that involve assessment and categorization are typically done with copula clauses, but they can also be made without a verb, with free NPs (Helasvuo 2001, 2019; see also Ono & Thompson 1994; Tao 1992, 1996) and other free nominals such as adjectives. In this paper, we will discuss the contexts in which speakers of Finnish use olla as a linking verb and ones where predications are made without it, as free nominals (NPs and APs). We analyze their functions and position in the interaction sequence.

Predicate nominals in copula clauses and free nominals serve partly overlapping functions. Both are, for example, used for characterizing, categorizing, and identifying referents. Well over half of the predicate nominals in our data characterized a referent, whereas less than 27% of free nominals served this function. Furthermore, free nominals were used in many functions that were not available for predicate nominals in copula clauses. For example, only free NPs were used as vocatives. Our study also indicates that the verbless formats are more likely than formats with the copula to be used in non-initial positions in sequences of talk and less likely to initiate new actions. The formats with olla are more likely to be used in initial position and may initiate actions.



Helasvuo, Marja-Liisa 2001: Syntax in the Making. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Helasvuo, Marja-Liisa 2019: Free NPs as units in Finnish. Special Issue on Usage-based and
Typological Approaches to Linguistic Units. Ritva Laury, Tsuyoshi Ono & Ryoko Suzuki (guest eds), Studies in Language 43(2):301–328.
Ono, Tsuyoshi & Sandra A. Thompson 1994: Unattached NPs in English conversation. BLS 20.
Tao, Hongyin 1992: NP Intonation Units and Referent Identification. BLS 18.
Tao, Hongyin 1996: Units in Mandarin Conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Studies on linguistic landscapes in Estonia

Linguistic landscape studies focusing on written use of languages in public places is a fast developing field in sociolinguistics. Collecting and analysing signs and advertisements found in the streets of different cities, towns and villages reveals patterns of language use, language contacts, and power relations between different speech communities. Estonia, as a multilingual country with a long history of foreign influences, makes a fascinating case for analysis. In the presentation, issues of methodology of linguistic landscape studies will be discussed in relation to the Estonian context, the project LinguaSnapp Tallinn which is currently under development will be presented, and several sets of data from Tallinn, Narva and other Estonian cities will be analysed with the focus on multilingual practices and contact-induced changes in Estonian Russian.

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